Pegvaliase for the treatment of phenylketonuria: A pivotal, double-blind randomized discontinuation Phase 3 clinical trial
Pegvaliase is a recombinant Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme under investigation for treatment of adult phenylketonuria (PKU). This manuscript describes results of a randomized discontinuation trial (RDT) designed to evaluate the effects of pegvaliase treatment on blood phenylalanine (Phe) and neuropsychiatric outcomes in adults with PKU.
PRISM-2 is a 4-part, Phase 3 study that enrolled adults with PKU receiving pegvaliase treatment (initiated in a prior Phase 2 or Phase 3 study). The RDT, Part 2 of PRISM-2, was an 8-week trial that evaluated change in blood Phe concentrations, neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive measures, and safety outcomes in PRISM-2 participants who had achieved at least a 20% blood Phe reduction from pre-treatment baseline with pegvaliase treatment. Participants were randomized 2:1 to either continue pegvaliase (20 mg/day or 40 mg/day) or switch to matching placebo.
The pooled pegvaliase group enrolled 66 participants and each placebo group enrolled 14 participants. The primary endpoint of change in blood Phe concentration from RDT entry to RDT Week 8 was met with clinically meaningful and statistically significant differences between the pegvaliase and placebo groups. Mean (SD) blood Phe at the beginning of the RDT when all participants were receiving pegvaliase was 563.9 μM (504.6) in the group assigned to the 20 mg/day placebo group (n = 14), 508.2 μM (363.7) in those assigned to the 40 mg/day placebo group (n = 14), and 503.9 μM (520.3) in those assigned to continue pegvaliase treatment (n = 58). At Week 8 of the RDT, the least squares mean change (95% confidence interval) in blood Phe was 949.8 μM (760.4 to 1139.1) for the 20 mg/day placebo group and 664.8 μM (465.5 to 864.1) for the 40 mg/day placebo group in comparison to 26.5 μM (−68.3 to 121.3) for the pooled (20 mg/day and 40 mg/day) pegvaliase group (P
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